Table 1

Demographics, EMS scene parameters, and workflow times for all patients

TransferDirectP value
Demographics
Number14488
Age, median (Q1–Q3)75.5 (64–84)77.5 (63.5–86)0.55
Female, n (%)74/144 (51)46/88 (52)0.90
Stroke risk factors, n (%)
  Hypertension102/144 (71)59/88 (67)0.54
  Diabetes mellitus25/144 (17)13/88 (15)0.60
  Hyperlipidemia78/144 (54)34/88 (39)0.02
  Atrial fibrillation57/144 (40)39/88 (44)0.48
Admission systolic blood pressure, mm Hg, mean (SD)143.1 (30.1)146.8 (28.1)0.48
Independent pre-stroke; n (%)101/144 (70)60/88 (68)0.75
Clinical parameters
NIHSS, median (Q1–Q3)17.5 (13.0–22.5)18 (12.0–24.5)0.64
IV tPA administered, n (%)94/144 (65)48/88 (55)0.13
Left hemisphere involved, n (%)80/144 (56)43/88 (49)0.35
Location of intracranial occlusion, n (%)0.93
  ICA27/144 (19)15/88 (17)
  M196/144 (67)59/88 (67)
  M221/144 (15)14/88 (16)
NCCT ASPECTS, median (Q1–Q3)10 (9–10)10 (9–10)0.95
Imaging repeated at CSC on arrival, n (%)33/144 (27)N/A
Scene geographic Information, median (Q1–Q3)
Distance from scene to closest PSC (miles)3.3 (1.6–6.0)4.4 (1.6–6.7)0.13
Drive time from scene to closest PSC (min)9.55 (5.45–14.05)11.1 (6.55–15.65)0.049
Distance from scene to CSC (miles)23.1 (15.8–33.9)10.7 (6.3–14.6)<0.001
Drive time from scene to CSC (min)29.8 (21.7–39.6)17.6 (12.2–23.2)<0.001
EMS scene workflow times (min), median (Q1–Q3)
Stroke onset to EMS arrival on scene39.55 (16.5–133.15)50 (17–290.6)0.29
EMS on scene time15.5 (12.0–19.0)13.5 (10.0–16.0)0.017
Scene departure to hospital arrival8.5 (5.3–12.6)15.8 (11.5–19.6)<0.001
In-hospital workflow times (min), median (Q1–Q3)
First hospital arrival to alteplase53 (40–71)33 (27–46)<0.001
PSC arrival to departure (door in to door out)85 (65–109)N/A
Interfacility transport time25 (17–32)N/A
CSC arrival to arterial puncture21.5 (16.0–39.0)77 (54–104)<0.001
Arterial puncture to recanalization22 (15–32)24 (16–37)0.29
Angiographic reperfusion, n (%)
Successful recanalization (mTICI 2b or better)106/127 (83)75/85 (87)0.78
 mTICI 0/18/127 (6)4/85 (5)
 mTICI 2a14/127 (11)7/85 (8)
 mTICI 2b39/127 (31)24/85 (28)
 mTICI 2c/367/127 (52)51/85 (59)
  • *Among those who underwent EVT.

  • ASPECTS, Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score; CSC, comprehensive stroke center; EMS, emergency medical services; EVT, endovascular therapy; ICA, internal carotid artery; mTICI, modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction; NCCT, non-contrast CT; NIHSS, national Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; PSC, primary stroke center; tPA, tissue plasminogen activator.