Table 1

Baseline characteristics and outcomes

Characteristics and outcomesEFI (73)Non-EFI (282)P valueAmong non-EFI (282)
DFI (85)Non-DFI (197)P value
Mean age (SD)65.3 (14.3)71.9 (14.6)0.00167.0 (15.4)74.0 (13.8)0.000
Male sex, % (n)50.7 (37)43.6 (123)0.29448.2 (41)41.6 (82)0.360
Mean pretreatment NIHSS score (SD)13.2 (5.7)17.8 (5.8)0.00016.9 (6.4)18.1 (5.5)0.103
Median ASPECTS (IQR)9 (9–10)9 (8–10)0.0189 (9–10)9 (8–10)0.124
Mean TLKW to arrival (SD)398.2 (382.5)582.8 (755.9)0.049544.1 (669.6)599.4 (791.1)0.578
TLKW to arrival >6 hours, % (n)32.9 (24)42.6 (120)0.14337.6 (32)44.7 (88)0.296
Hypertension, % (n)63.0 (46)77.3 (218)0.01667.1 (57)81.7 (161)0.009
Hyperlipidemia, % (n)46.6 (34)55.3 (156)0.19044.7 (38)59.9 (118)0.020
Diabetes mellitus, % (n)13.7 (10)25.5 (72)0.04220.0 (17)27.9 (55)0.182
Atrial fibrillation, % (n)28.8 (21)37.6 (106)0.17229.4 (25)41.1 (81)0.062
Smoking, % (n)32.9 (24)23.0 (65)0.09631.8 (27)19.3 (38)0.030
Prior stroke, % (n)17.8 (13)17.7 (50)1.00012.9 (11)19.8 (39)0.179
CAD/CHF % (n)28.8 (21)29.4 (83)1.00022.4 (19)32.5 (64)0.090
Occlusion location: internal carotid artery, % (n)28.8 (21)35.5 (100)0.33332.9 (28)36.5 (72)0.590
IV tPA, % (n)41.1 (30)34.8 (98)0.34045.9 (39)29.9 (59)0.014
mTICI ≥2c, % (n)23.3 (17)13.1 (37)0.04314.1 (12)12.7 (25)0.848
Mean 24 hours NIHSS score (SD)2.9 (3.5)12 (7.9)<0.0018.1 (4.9)13.2 (8.4)<0.001
PH 1/2, % (n)6.8 (5)24.5 (69)0.00115.3 (13)28.4 (56)0.023
Follow-up infarct volume (mL)10.2±11.261.9±71.9<0.00137.2±39.472.2±79.6<0.001
mRS score 0–2 at 90 days, % (n)94.5 (69)30.1 (85)0.000100 (85)Mean mRS 4.6±1.2NA
Mortality, % (n)4.1 (3)26.6 (75)0.0000 (0)38.1 (75)NA
  • ASPECTS, Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score; CAD, coronary artery disease; CHF, congestive heart failure; DFI, delayed functional independence; EFI, early functional independence; mRS, modified Rankin Scale; mTICI, modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction; NIHSS, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; PH, parenchymal hemorrhage; TLKW, time last known well; tPA, tissue plasminogen activator.