Table 1

Summary of unsuccessful cases through transradial approach

StageIndicationn (%)
Diagnostic procedures (n=79)
IRadial artery vasospasm26 (32.9)
Small radial artery diameter12 (15.2)
Radial artery dissection1 (1.3)
IIRadial artery tortuosity12 (15.2)
Aberrant subclavian artery8 (10.1)
Radial artery loop4 (5.1)
Brachial artery loop1 (1.3)
Tortuous subclavian artery2 (2.5)
IIIInability to select left CCA2 (2.5)
Inability to select left ICA1 (1.3)
Inability to select left VA3 (3.8)
Inability to select right ICA4 (5.1)
Sheath in the venous system instead of the arterial system2 (2.5)
IVDetachment of distal tip of the catheter (device related)1 (1.3)
Interventional procedures (n=42)
IRadial artery vasospasm4 (9.5)
Small radial artery diameter1 (2.4)
IIChronic occlusion of brachial artery1 (2.4)
Aberrant subclavian artery4 (9.5)
IIITortuous aortic arch6 (14.3)
Inability to select left CCA4 (9.5)
Inability to select left ICA3 (7.1)
Inability to select left ECA1 (2.4)
Inability to select left VA2 (4.8)
Inability to select right CCA2 (4.8)
Inability to select right ICA1 (2.4)
IVInability to reach the target lesion4 (9.5)
Need to use specific devices not compatible with radial access8 (19)
Inability to retrieve the distal protection device (device related)1 (2.4)
  • CCA, common carotid artery; ECA, external carotid artery; ICA, internal carotid artery; MCA, middle cerebral artery; VA, vertebral artery.