Table 2

Antithrombotic agents and potential mechanisms of mitigating CAC

DrugMechanism of actionMechanism of inhibiting CAC
Antiplatelet AspirinThromboxane A2
  • Platelet activation

  • Neutrophil activation and NETosis

  • Cytokine storm

ClopidogrelP2Y12
PrasugrelP2Y12
TicagrelorP2Y12
Anticoagulant HeparinFactor IIa
  • Thrombin activity

  • Thrombin production

  • Platelet activation

  • Neutrophil activation

LMWHFactor Xa
WarfarinFactor II, VII, IX, X, proteins C and S
DabigatranFactor IIa
ApixabanFactor Xa
  • Thrombin activity

  • Thrombin production

  • Platelet activation

  • Neutrophil activation

  • Virus spike protein activity

RivaroxabanFactor Xa
EdoxabanFactor Xa
  • CAC, COVID-19 associated coagulopathy; LMWH, low molecular weight heparin.