Table 1

Summary of the previous commercial robotic systems used for cardiac and peripheral endovascular intervention, including the key advantages and disadvantages

Robotic systemIndicationControl panelMethod of catheter and guidewire manipulationAdvantagesPotential limitations
Sensei robotic systemCardiac electrophysiological studies and treatmentJoystickSteerable guide catheter inside a steerable sheath via tendon drives with movement in three dimensionsSteerable catheter allows precise movements to be performed more quickly than manually51 Requires the use of a bespoke sheath and requires the manual placement of EP catheter for recording or ablation
Niobe magnetic navigation systemCardiac electrophysiological studies and treatmentJoystick/mouseFixed external magnets with a magnetic catheter tip and catheter advancer systemMagnetic control allows exceptional accuracy. Uses bespoke soft flexible catheter, reducing endovascular or cardiac injury52 Expensive, requiring large bespoke interventional theater to accommodate external magnets
Amigo remote catheter systemCardiac electrophysiological studies and treatmentHandheld remote deviceThree separate controllable mechanisms for linear motion, tip deflection, and rotation of catheterNo requirement for bespoke proprietary equipment in addition to robotic systemSpecifically designed to manipulate EP catheters. limiting potential clinical translation to PCI or PVI
Magellan robotic systemPeripheral vascular interventionTouchscreen, 3D joystick, foot pedalSteerable guide catheter inside a steerable sheath via tendon drives with movement in three dimensions. Separate remote wire manipulator allowing linear and rotational movement of guidewireSystem has been shown to increase procedure accuracy and reduce procedure time in vitro53 as well as reduce histological damage to vessels in vivo54 Requires the manual deployment of interventional devices and the use of bespoke proprietary catheter and sheath
CorPath 200Coronary and peripheral vascular interventionTouchscreen, joystickSeparate mechanisms for linear and rotational motion of guidewire. Mechanism for linear motion of rapid exchange catheterCan use ‘off the shelf’ 0.014 inch coronary guidewires and rapid exchange catheters for interventionNo capability for guide catheter manipulation. Uses a disposable cassette that must be replaced between procedures
  • PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention ; PVI, peripheral vascular intervention .