Table 1

Summary of the results of the quantitative image analysis of the in vitro and in vivo datasets

Original CBCT images
(no MAR)*
Post-processed CBCT images
(with MAR)*
P values†
Tubes56.36±25.90 DU42.01±6.96 DUp<0.001
38.30±22.03 DU19.83±12.31 DU
37.82±20.31 DU17.95±12.72 DU
39.19±25.43 DU23.33±10.96 DU
Artifact-free layer
8.12±1.39 DU8.11±1.54 DUp=0.908
  • The MAR software was able to reduce the LEA-related artifacts in CBCT significantly in the standardized in vitro models and the patient datasets in the quantitative analysis. There was no difference between the original and the post-processed images on the layers which were not affected by Onyx-related artifacts.

  • *Data are provided as mean SD±SD.

  • †P values of the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test to evaluate statistical differences between the original (no MAR) and the post-processed (with MAR) CBCT images.

  • AVM, arteriovenous malformation; CBCT, cone-beam CT; dAVF, dural arteriovenous fistula; DU, density units; LEA, liquid embolic agent; MAR, metal artifact reduction.