Table 1

Endovascular neural recording in human or animals

Study, yearCountryTypeMethodSpeciesPositionScaleConclusion
Large-scale endovascular signal recording
Penn et al, 19738USAConceptual validationRecordingHumanMCA0.6 mmEstablished a method that intravascular EEG recordings from localized intracerebral structures not accessible to routine EEG techniques
Nakase et al, 19959JapanConceptual validationRecordingHumanMCA0.31 mmEndovascular EEG signals are 2–5 times higher signal than scalp EEG, while evaluation of corroborative of endovascular EEG and ECoG recordings in similar locations is required
Stoeter et al, 199510GermanyConceptual validationRecordingHumanMiddle meningeal artery, basilar artery, ACA, and MCA0.31 mmIntra-arterial recording technique is an additional method to register the electric phenomena of deep cerebral structures otherwise only accessible by direct puncture
Boniface and Antoun, 199711UKConceptual validationRecordingHumanMCAStandard 14 steerable guide wireEndovascular EEG is a feasible technique that can identify intracranial epileptiform abnormalities, and has the potential to achieve more in a bipolar format
Mikuni et al, 199712JapanConceptual validationRecordingHumanCavernous sinus0.31 mmThe cavernous sinus EEG demonstrated clear epileptiform discharges, sometimes even when they were absent on the simultaneously recorded scalp EEG
Thömke et al, 199714GermanyConceptual validationRecordingHumanNA (seems to be MCA)NAEndovascular EEG shows acceptable pulse artefacts in some leads and simultaneous recordings from different contacts may be helpful in the preoperative evaluation for seizure patients
García-Asensio et al, 199915SpainProspective studyRecordingHumanMiddle meningeal artery0.31 mmIntra-arterial electroencephalography is able to perform dynamic electroencephalographic recording and patient tolerance is excellent
Kunieda et al, 200013JapanConceptual validationRecordingHumanCavernous sinus, superior petrosal sinus0.31 mmEndovascular EEG is clinically useful to determine ictal foci and its spreading pattern and thus for the selection of surgical candidate among patients with intractable TLE
Bower et al, 201316USAConceptual validationRecordingPigsSuperior sagittal sinus2–5 mmSinusoidal electrical stimulation showed that intravascular electrodes provide sufficient broadband fidelity to record high-frequency, physiological events that may also prove useful in localizing seizure onset zones
Oxley et al, 201818AustraliaConceptual validationRecordingSheepSuperior sagittal sinus1.2 mmThe ovine model for cerebral catheter venography has generalizability to the human cerebral venous system in relation to motor cortex location
John et al, 201819AustraliaConceptual validationRecordingSheepSuperior sagittal sinus1.3–2 mmThe spatial resolution depends on the array location and the frequency of recording. There is a direct correlation between the signal-noise ratio and classification accuracy, and that decoding accuracy is comparable between electrode arrays
Forsyth et al, 201921AustraliaFeasibility validationRecordingSheepSuperior sagittal sinus1.3–2 mmStentrode can be used to acquire motor-related brain signals to detect movement of the sheep in a forced-choice task
John et al, 201920AustraliaFeasibility validationRecordingSheepSuperior sagittal sinus1.2 mmThe distinctive effects of the blood vessel location are limited to the lower frequency ranges, and the effect of the blood vessel was a combination of the highly conductive blood vessel wall and the CSF, with higher conductivity values leading to a reduction in the impedance magnitude
John et al, 202219AustraliaConceptual validationRecordingSheepSuperior sagittal sinus250 μmThe study demonstrated an uneven narrowing of the SSS lumen proportional to the stent material within the blood vessel. However, the foreign body response did not occlude blood flow
SWlTCH study, 202325USAClinical trialRecordingHumanSuperior sagittal sinus1.3–2 mmEndovascular access to the sensorimotor cortex indicates it may be possible to record neural signals from a blood vessel
Microelectrode endovascular recordings
Llinás et al, 200526USAMicroelectrode materialRecording (also capable for stimulation)In vitroCapillariesNanoscaleMicroelectrodes made using conductive polymers can be made smaller while achieving the same conductivity
Watanabe et al, 200927USAMicroelectrode materialRecordingEx vivoAnterior spinal arterySubmicron scaleUsing Wollaston platinum wire, it is able to address any brain area to detect EEG signal through the vascular system
Wong et al, 201628AustraliaMicroelectrode materialRecording (also capable for stimulation)SheepSurface of the cortex4 mmNitinol has the potential to be used as material in the manufacture of shape-conforming electrodes
Zhang et al, 202329USAMicroelectrode materialRecordingRodentsACAMicrometer scaleBy the ultrasmall and flexible sub-100 micrometer scale electrode, the electrophysiology recording of local field potentials and single-unit spikes in the cortex and olfactory bulb can be achieved with minimal immune response and long-term stability
  • ACA, anterior cerebral artery; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; ECoG, electrocorticography; EEG, electroencephalogram; MCA, middle cerebral artery; SSS, superior sagittal sinus; TLE, temporal lobe epilepsy.