Table 2

Endovascular neural stimulation studies

Study, yearCountryTypeMethodSpeciesPositionScaleConclusion
Teplitzky et al, 201430USAConceptual validationStimulationComputational modelInternal cerebral vein, ACA1.3 mmRing electrodes that conform to the shape of the blood vessel wall are more efficient at electrical stimulation, and the increase in length has minimal impact on neural activation thresholds. Large variability in neural activation occurred with suboptimal placement of a ring-electrode along the targeted vessel
Gerboni et al, 201831AustraliaConceptual validationStimulationSheepSuperior sagittal sinus1.3 mmStentrode to provide localized activation of neural tissue
Opie et al, 201832AustraliaConceptual validationStimulationSheepSuperior sagittal sinus1.3 mmProximity of the electrode to the motor cortex, yet not its orientation, was integral to achieving reliable responses from discrete neuronal populations
Chen et al, 2022USAConceptual validationStimulationPigsFemoral artery3×2.15×14.8 mm³Minimally invasive magnetoelectric implants may allow for the stimulation of nerves without the need for open surgery or the implantation of battery-powered pulse generators
Liu et al, 202334AustraliaConceptual validationStimulationComputational modelPudendal and vagal neurovascular bundles0.75 mmThis study predicts that the endovascular stent-electrode array is a feasible stimulation option for peripheral nerves, and the electrode array can be flexibly optimized to achieve the lowest stimulation threshold
Nicolai et al, 202335USAConceptual validationStimulationPigsIJV2.81–4 mmThe stimulation electrode position within the IJV is critical for efficient activation of the vagus nerve, and the thresholds for vagus nerve activation were several times higher than direct stimulation of the nerve using a cuff electrode
  • ACA, anterior cerebral artery; IJV, internal jugular vein.