Table 1

Baseline variables, stroke etiology, and treatment procedures

VariableICA-T (n=1946)ICA-I (n=366)ICA-E (n=276)P valueP value for trend
Baseline variables
Age (years) median (IQR) 77 (66–83) 76 (65–82) 74 (63–82) 0.04 0.02
Female, n (%)1039 (53.4)179 (48.9)119 (43.1) <0.01 <0.001
Pre-stroke mRS score ≤2, n(%)1477/1837 (80.4)293/342 (85.7)226/262 (86.3) <0.01 0.04
Pre-stroke mRS score, median (IQR)
 0, n (%)1089 (59.3)224 (65.5)171 (65.3) <0.01 <0.001
 1, n (%)224 (12.2)35 (10.2)35 (13.4)
 2, n (%)164 (8.9)34 (9.9)20 (7.6)
 3, n (%)135 (7.3)29 (8.5)22 (8.4)
 4, n (%)94 (5.1)15 (4.4)11 (4.2)
 5, n (%)131 (7.1)5 (1.5)3 (1.1)
Missing, n1092414
 NIHSS at admission, median (IQR) 17 (13–20) 14 (9–19) 13 (8–18) <0.001 <0.001
 Arterial hypertension, n (%)1410 (72.5)284 (77.6)204 (73.9)0.120.21
 Diabetes mellitus, n (%)397 (20.4)89 (24.3)86 (31.2) <0.001 <0.001
 Dyslipidemia, n (%)693 (35.6)150 (41.0)129 (46.7) <0.01 <0.001
 Atrial fibrillation, n (%)784 (40.3)134 (36.6)89 (32.2) 0.02 <0.01
 Current smoking, n (%)284 (14.6)69 (18.9)58 (21.0) <0.01 <0.01
 Antiplatelet agent, n (%)510 (26.2)122 (33.3)89 (32.2) <0.01 0.04
 Anticoagulation*, n (%)276 (14.2)37 (10.1)27 (9.8) 0.02 <0.01
 Systolic blood pressure on admission (mm Hg), median (IQR) 150 (133–170) 154 (136–172) 151 (131–170)0.250.18
Stroke etiology and Imaging
Suspected stroke etiology at discharge, n (%)
 Cardioembolic918 (47.2)146 (39.9)78 (28.3) <0.001
 Large artery atherosclerosis592 (30.4)126 (34.4)126 (45.7)
 Dissection33 (1.7)16 (4.4)17 (6.2)
 Other determined71 (3.6)15 (4.1)11 (4.0)
 Undetermined332 (17.1)63 (17.2)44 (15.9)
Primary imaging modality
 CT, n (%)1844/1903 (96.9)334/357 (93.6)255/265 (96.2) <0.01 0.09
 MRI, n (%)59/1903 (3.1)23/357 (6.4)10/265 (3.8)
Perfusion-based imaging, n (%)931/1903 (48.9)191/357 (53.5)170/265 (64.2) <0.001 <0.001
ICA stenosis >70%, n (%)569 (29.2)109 (29.8)168 (60.9) <0.001 <0.001
ASPECTS, median (IQR)8 (7–10)9 (8–10)9 (8–10) <0.001 <0.001
Treatment times and procedures
Witnessed onset of stroke, n (%)1036 (53.2)216 (59.0)158 (57.2)0.080.06
Intravenous thrombolysis, n (%)913 (46.9)157 (42.9)114 (41.3)0.11 0.04
Primary admission at interventional hospital, n (%)1135 (58.3)207 (56.6)157 (56.9)0.770.52
Onset to arrival at interventional hospital (min), median (IQR) 120 (60–200) 150 (65–213) 156 (67–243) <0.01 <0.001
Arrival to thrombolysis in mothership patients (min), median (IQR) 29 (21–40) 29 (23–46) 33 (24–49)0.05 0.02
Thrombolysis to arrival in transferred patients (min), median (IQR) 91 (65–116) 95 (64–116) 96 (72–143)0.330.20
Anesthesia, n (% of valid cases)
 General1477 (78.3)287 (80.6)183 (68.0) <0.001
 Conscious sedation345 (18.3)57 (16.0)78 (29.0)
 Switch from local to general64 (3.4)12 (3.4)8 (3.0)
 Missing information60107
Arrival to groin puncture (min), median (IQR) 67 (45–95) 81 (54–130) 75 (47–111) <0.001 <0.001
Groin puncture >180 min after admission, n (%)82/1793 (4.6)50/335 (14.9)29/255 (11.4) <0.001 <0.001
Groin puncture to flow restoration (min), median (IQR) 48 (30–77) 47 (28–70) 50 (32–78)0.280.88
Symptom onset to flow restoration (min), median (IQR) 240 (187–329) 274 (199–377) 273 (207–409) <0.001 <0.001
Implantation of ICA stent, n (%)472 (24.3)91 (24.9)135 (48.9) <0.001 <0.001
  • Χ2 test and Cochran-Armitage test were used for dichotomous variables, Kruskal-Wallis test and Jonckheere-Terpstra test were used for ordinal and linear variables.

  • *Dabigatran, rivaroxaban, edoxaban, apixaban, heparin (therapeutic dose), warfarin.

  • ASPECTS, Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score; ICA, Internal carotid artery; ICA-E, occlusion of the extracranial segment of the internal carotid artery; ICA-I, occlusion of the non-terminal internal segment of the internal carotid artery; ICA-T, occlusion of the terminal segment of the internal carotid artery (involving the proximal segments of the anterior cerebral artery and middle cerebral artery); MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; mRS, modified Rankin Scale; NIHSS, National Insitutes of Health Stroke Scale.